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发表时间:2018-08-10内容来源:VOA英语学习网

TED全球问题:Jim Yong Kim: Doesn't everyone deserve a chance at a good life?

I just want to share with youwhat I have been experiencingover the last five yearsin having the great privilege of travelingto many of the poorestcountries in the world.

This scene is oneI see all the time everywhere,and these young childrenare looking at a smartphone,and the smartphone is having a huge impactin even the poorest countries.I said to my team, you know,what I see is a rise in aspirationsall over the world.In fact, it seems to methat there's a convergence of aspirations.And I asked a team of economiststo actually look into this.Is this true?Are aspirations convergingall around the world?So they looked at things like Gallup pollsabout satisfaction in lifeand what they learned wasthat if you have access to the internet,your satisfaction goes up.But another thing happensthat's very important:your reference income,the income to which you compare your own,also goes up.Now, if the reference incomeof a nation, for example,goes up 10 percentby comparing themselves to the outside,then on average,people's own incomeshave to go up at least five percentto maintain the samelevel of satisfaction.But when you get downinto the lower percentiles of income,your income has to go up much moreif the reference incomegoes up 10 percent,something like 20 percent.And so with this rise of aspirations,the fundamental question is:Are we going to have a situationwhere aspirationsare linked to opportunityand you get dynamism and economic growth,like that which happenedin the country I was born in, in Korea?Or are aspirationsgoing to meet frustration?

This is a real concern,because between 2012 and 2015,terrorism incidentsincreased by 74 percent.The number of deaths from terrorismwent up 150 percent.Right now, two billion peoplelive in conditionsof fragility, conflict, violence,and by 2030, more than 60 percentof the world's poorwill live in these situationsof fragility, conflict and violence.And so what do we doabout meeting these aspirations?Are there new ways of thinkingabout how we can riseto meet these aspirations?Because if we don't,I'm extremely worried.Aspirations are rising as never beforebecause of access to the internet.Everyone knows how everyone else lives.Has our ability to meet those aspirationsrisen as well?

And just to get at the details of this,I want to share with youmy own personal story.This is not my mother,but during the Korean War,my mother literally took her own sister,her younger sister, on her back,and walked at least part of the wayto escape Seoul during the Korean War.Now, through a series of miracles,my mother and father both gotscholarships to go to New York City.They actually met in New York Cityand got married in New York City.My father, too, was a refugee.At the age of 19, he left his familyin the northern part of the country,escaped through the borderand never saw his family again.Now, when they were marriedand living in New York,my father was a waiterat Patricia Murphy's restaurant.Their aspirations went up.They understood what it was liketo live in a place like New York Cityin the 1950s.

Well, my brother was bornand they came back to Korea,and we had what I rememberas kind of an idyllic life,but what was happeningin Korea at that timewas the country was oneof the poorest in the worldand there was political upheaval.There were demonstrations just downthe street from our house all the time,students protestingagainst the military government.And at the time,the aspirations of the World Bank Group,the organization I lead now,were extremely low for Korea.Their idea was that Korea wouldfind it difficult without foreign aidto provide its people with morethan the bare necessities of life.So the situation isKorea is in a tough position,my parents have seenwhat life is like in the United States.They got married there.My brother was born there.And they felt that in orderto give us an opportunityto reach their aspirations for us,we had to go and come backto the United States.

Now, we came back.First we went to Dallas.My father did his dental degreeall over again.And then we ended upmoving to Iowa, of all places.We grew up in Iowa.And in Iowa, we wentthrough the whole course.I went to high school, I went to college.And then one day,something that I'll never forget,my father picked me upafter my sophomore year in college,and he was driving me home,and he said, "Jim,what are your aspirations?What do you want to study?What do you want to do?"And I said, "Dad," —My mother actually was a philosopher,and had filled us with ideasabout protest and social justice,and I said, "Dad, I'm going to studypolitical science and philosophy,and I'm going to becomepart of a political movement."My father, the Korean dentist,slowly pulled the carover to the side of the road —

(Laughter)

He looked back at me, and he said,"Jim, you finish your medical residency,you can study anything you want."

(Laughter)

Now, I've told this storyto a mostly Asian audience before.Nobody laughs. They just shake their head.Of course.

(Laughter)

(Applause)

So, tragically,my father died at a young age,30 years ago at the age of 57,what happens to be how old I am right now,and when he died in the middleof my medical and graduate studies —You see, I actually got around itby doing medicine and anthropology.I studied both of them in graduate school.

But then right about that time,I met these two people,Ophelia Dahl and Paul Farmer.And Paul and I were in the same program.We were studying medicineand at the same timegetting our PhD's in anthropology.And we began to asksome pretty fundamental questions.For people who have the great privilegeof studying medicine and anthropology —I had come from parents who were refugees.Paul grew up literallyin a bus in a swamp in Florida.He liked to call himself "white trash."And so we had this opportunityand we said,what is it that we need to do?Given our ridiculouslyelaborate educations,what is the natureof our responsibility to the world?And we decided that we neededto start an organization.It's called Partners in Health.And by the way,there's a movie made about that.

(Applause)

There's a moviethat was just a brilliant moviethey made about itcalled "Bending the Arc."It launched at Sundance this past January.Jeff Skoll is here.Jeff is one of the oneswho made it happen.And we began to thinkabout what it would take for usto actually have our aspirationsreach the levelof some of the poorestcommunities in the world.

This is my very first visitto Haiti in 1988,and in 1988, we elaborateda sort of mission statement,which is we are going to makea preferential option for the poorin health.Now, it took us a long time, and wewere graduate students in anthropology.We were reading up one side of Marxand down the other.Habermas. Fernand Braudel.We were reading everythingand we had to come to a conclusionof how are we going to structure our work?So "O for the P," we called it,a preferential option for the poor.

The most important thingabout a preferential option for the pooris what it's not.It's not a preferential optionfor your own sense of heroism.It's not a preferential optionfor your own idea abouthow to lift the poor out of poverty.It's not a preferential optionfor your own organization.And the hardest of all,it's not a preferential optionfor your poor.It's a preferential option for the poor.

So what do you do?Well, Haiti, we started building —Everyone told us, the cost-effective thingis just focus on vaccinationand maybe a feeding program.But what the Haitians wantedwas a hospital.They wanted schools.They wanted to provide their childrenwith the opportunitiesthat they'd been hearing aboutfrom others, relatives, for example,who had gone to the United States.They wanted the same kindsof opportunities as my parents did.I recognized them.And so that's what we did.We built hospitals.We provided education.And we did everything we couldto try to give them opportunities.

Now, my experience really became intenseat Partners in Healthin this community, Carabayllo,in the northern slums of Lima, Peru.And in this community,we started out by really just goingto people's homes and talking to people,and we discovered an outbreak, an epidemicof multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.This is Melquiades.Melquiades was a patient at that time,he was about 18 years old,and he had a very difficult formof drug-resistant tuberculosis.All of the gurus in the world,the global health gurus,said it is not cost-effectiveto treat drug-resistant tuberculosis.It's too complicated. It's too expensive.You just can't do it. It can't be done.And in addition,they were getting angry at us,because the implication wasif it could be done,we would have done it.Who do you think you are?And the people that we fought withwere the World Health Organizationand probably the organizationwe fought with mostwas the World Bank Group.

Now, we did everything we couldto convince Melquiadesto take his medicines,because it's really hard,and not once during the time of treatmentdid Melquiades's family ever say,"Hey, you know, Melquiadesis just not cost-effective.Why don't you go onand treat somebody else?"

(Laughter)

I hadn't seen Melquiadesfor about 10 yearsand when we hadour annual meetings in Lima, Perua couple of years ago,the filmmakers found himand here is us getting together.

(Applause)

He has become a bit of a media starbecause he goes to the film openings,and he knows how to work an audience now.

(Laughter)

But as soon as we won —We did win. We won the argument.You should treatmultidrug-resistant tuberculosis —we heard the same argumentsin the early 2000s about HIV.All of the leading global healthpeople in the world saidit is impossibleto treat HIV in poor countries.Too expensive, too complicated,you can't do it.Compared to drug-resistant TB treatment,it's actually easier.And we were seeing patients like this.Joseph Jeune.Joseph Jeune also never mentionedthat he was not cost-effective.A few months of medicines,and this is what he looked like.

(Applause)

We call that the Lazarus Effectof HIV treatment.Joseline came to us looking like this.This is what she looked likea few months later.

(Applause)

Now, our argument, our battle, we thought,was with the organizationsthat kept saying it's not cost-effective.We were saying, no,preferential option for the poorrequires us to raise our aspirationsto meet those of the poor for themselves.And they said, well, that's a nice thoughtbut it's just not cost-effective.So in the nerdy waythat we have operated Partners in Health,we wrote a book against,basically, the World Bank.It says that because the World Bankhas focused so muchon just economic growthand said that governmentshave to shrink their budgetsand reduce expendituresin health, education and social welfare —we thought that was fundamentally wrong.And we argued with the World Bank.And then a crazy thing happened.President Obama nominated meto be President of the World Bank.

(Applause)

Now, when I went to do the vetting processwith President Obama's team,they had a copy of "Dying For Growth,"and they had read every page.And I said, "OK, that's it, right?You guys are going to drop me?"He goes, "Oh, no, no, it's OK."And I was nominated,and I walked through the doorof the World Bank Group in July of 2012,and that statement on the wall,"Our dream is a world free of poverty."A few months after that,we actually turned it into a goal:end extreme poverty by 2030,boost shared prosperity.That's what we do nowat the World Bank Group.I feel like I have broughtthe preferential option for the poorto the World Bank Group.

(Applause)

But this is TED,and so I want to sharewith you some concerns,and then make a proposal.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution,now, you guys knowso much better than I do,but here's the thing that concerns me.What we hear about is job loss.You've all heard that.Our own data suggest to usthat two thirds of all jobs,currently existing jobsin developing countries,will be lost because of automation.Now, you've got to make up for those jobs.Now, one of the waysto make up for those jobsis to turn community health workersinto a formal labor force.That's what we want to do.

(Applause)

We think the numbers will work out,that as health outcomes get betterand as people have formal work,we're going to be able to train themwith the soft-skills trainingthat you add to itto become workersthat will have a huge impact,and that may be the one areathat grows the most.

But here's the other thingthat bothers me:right now it seems pretty clear to methat the jobs of the futurewill be more digitally demanding,and there is a CRIsisin childhood stunting.So these are photos from Charles Nelson,who shared these with usfrom Harvard Medical School.And what these photos showon the one side, on the left side,is a three-month-old who has been stunted:not adequate nutrition,not adequate stimulation.And on the other side,of course, is a normal child,and the normal childhas all of these neuronal connections.Now, the neuronal connectionsare important,because that isthe definition of human capital.Now, we know that wecan reduce these rates.We can reduce these ratesof childhood stunting quickly,but if we don't, India, for example,with 38 percent childhood stunting,how are they going to competein the economy of the futureif 40 percent of their future workerscannot achieve educationallyand certainly we worryabout achieving economicallyin a way that will helpthe country as a whole grow.

Now, what are we going to do?78 trillion dollarsis the size of the global economy.8.55 trillion dollars are sittingin negative interest rate bonds.That means that you givethe German central bank your moneyand then you pay them to keep your money.That's a negative interest rate bond.24.4 trillion dollarsin very low-earning government bonds.And 8 trillion literally sittingin the hands of rich peopleunder their very large mattresses.What we are trying to dois now use our own tools —and just to get nerdy for a second,we're talking aboutfirst-loss risk debt instruments,we're talking about derisking,blended finance,we're talking aboutpolitical risk insurance,credit enhancement —all these things that I've now learnedat the World Bank Groupthat rich people use every single dayto make themselves richer,but we haven't used aggressively enoughon behalf of the poorto bring this capital in.

(Applause)

So does this work?Can you actually bringprivate-sector players into a countryand really make things work?Well, we've done it a couple of times.This is Zambia, Scaling Solar.It's a box-set solutionfrom the World Bankwhere we come inand we do all the things you needto attract private-sector investors.And in this case, Zambia wentfrom having a cost of electricityat 25 cents a kilowatt-hour,and by just doing simple things,doing the auction,changing some policies,we were able to bring the cost down.Lowest bid,25 cents a kilowatt-hour for Zambia?The lowest bid was 4.7 centsa kilowatt-hour. It's possible.

(Applause)

But here's my proposal for you.This is from a group called Zipline,a cool company, and theyliterally are rocket scientists.They figured outhow to use drones in Rwanda.This is me launching a drone in Rwandathat delivers bloodanywhere in the countryin less than an hour.So we save lives,this program saved lives —

(Applause)

This program made money for Ziplineand this program savedhuge amounts of money for Rwanda.That's what we need,and we need that from all of you.I'm asking you, carve outa little bit of time in your brainsto think about the technologythat you work on,the companies that you start,the design that you do.Think a little bit and work with usto see if we can come up with these kindsof extraordinary win-win solutions.

I'm going to leave youwith one final story.I was in Tanzania,and I was in a classroom.This is me with a classroomof 11-year-olds.And I asked them, as I always do,"What do you want to be when you grow up?"Two raised their hands and said,"I want to be Presidentof the World Bank."

(Laughter)

And just like you, my own teamand their teachers laughed.But then I stopped them.I said, "Look, I want to tell you a story.When I was born in South Korea,this is what it looked like.This is where I came from.And when I was three years old,in preschool,I don't think that George David Woods,the President of the World Bank,if he had visited Korea on that dayand come to my classroom,that he would have thoughtthat the future Presidentof the World Bankwas sitting in that classroom.Don't let anyone ever tell youthat you cannot bePresident of the World Bank."

Now — thank you.

(Applause)

Let me leave you with one thought.I came from a countrythat was the poorest in the world.I'm President of the World Bank.I cannot and I will notpull up the ladder behind me.This is urgent.Aspirations are going up.Everywhere aspirations are going up.You folks in this room, work with us.We know that we can findthose Zipline-type solutionsand help the poorleapfrog into a better world,but it won't happenuntil we work together.The future "you" —and especially for your children —the future youwill depend on how much careand compassion we bringto ensuring that the future "us"provides equality of opportunityfor every child in the world.

Thank you very much.

(Applause)

Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.

(Applause)

Chris Anderson: You'd almost thinkpeople are surprisedto hear a talk like thisfrom the President of the World Bank.It's kind of cool.I'd encourage you to even bea little more specific on your proposal.There's many investors,entrepreneurs in this room.How will you partner with them?What's your proposal?

Jim Yong Kim: Can I get nerdyfor just a second.

CA: Get nerdy. Absolutely.JYK: So here's what we did.Insurance companies never investin developing country infrastructure,for example, becausethey can't take the risk.They're holding moneyfor people who pay for insurance.So what we did was a SwedishInternational Development Associationgave us a little bit of money,we went out and raised a little bitmore money, a hundred million,and we took first loss,meaning if this thing goes bad,10 percent of the loss we'll just eat,and the rest of you will be safe.And that createda 90-percent chunk, tranchethat was triple B, investment-grade,so the insurance companies invested.So for us, what we're doingis taking our public moneyand using it to deriskspecific instrumentsto bring people in from the outside.So all of you who are sittingon trillions of dollars of cash,come to us. Right?

(Laughter)

CA: And what you're specificallylooking for are investment proposalsthat create employmentin the developing world.

JYK: Absolutely. Absolutely.So these will be, for example,in infrastructure that brings energy,builds roads, bridges, ports.These kinds of thingsare necessary to create jobs,but also what we're saying isyou may think that the technologyyou're working onor the business that you're working onmay not have applicationsin the developing world,but look at Zipline.And that Zipline thing didn't happenjust because of the qualityof the technology.It was because they engagedwith the Rwandans earlyand used artificial intelligence —one thing, Rwanda has great broadband —but these things flycompletely on their own.So we will help you do that.We will make the introductions.We will even provide financing.We will help you do that.

CA: How much capitalis the World Bank willing to deployto back those kinds of efforts?

JYK: Chris, you're always getting meto try to do something like this.

CA: I'm trying to get you in trouble.JYK: So here's what we're going to do.We have 25 billion a yearthat we're investing in poor countries,the poorest countries.And as we investover the next three years,25 billion a year,we have got to think with youabout how to use that moneymore effectively.So I can't give you a specific number.It depends on the quality of the ideas.So bring us your ideas,and I don't think that financingis going to be the problem.

CA: All right, you heard itfrom the man himself.

Jim, thanks so much.JYK: Thank you. Thank you.

(Applause)

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: https://www.veryv.net/html/20180810/Jim-Yong-Kim-Doesnt-everyone-deserve-a-chance-at-a-good-life.html