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发表时间:2018-12-21内容来源:VOA英语学习网

The Federal Reserve today said it would raise interest rates by a quarter of a point. At the same time, Fed officials suggested they would raise rates at a slower pace next year. That is a signal that markets have been looking for, but instead of cheering, investors sent stocks plummeting. NPR's Jim Zarroli explains why.

JIM ZARROLI, BYLINE: Today's rate hike was a surprise to no one. The Fed had already signaled that it would increase rates for the ninth time in three years. Fed Chairman Jerome Powell told reporters after the meeting that the U.S. economy is still growing at a robust pace.

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JEROME POWELL: 2018 has been the strongest year since the financial crisis. And during that period, we've had low unemployment and strong growth, and inflation has still remained just a touch below 2 percent.

ZARROLI: Those are ideal conditions for economic growth, and Powell said the Fed's outlook remains positive. But the Fed now expects the economy to grow by just 2.3 percent next year instead of 2 1/2 percent. Powell said the Fed is carefully watching some new, potentially worrisome forces at work in the global economy.

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POWELL: More broadly, there's been a sense of concern among businesspeople and market people about global growth. And, you know, that may be partly about trade tensions. It may be partly about a variety of things.

ZARROLI: Powell said the current tariff dispute between the U.S. and China is a relatively small factor in growth, but it could hurt business confidence, and that's a potential problem. And so he said the Fed will take that into account next year. Most Fed officials expect the Fed to raise rates no more than twice in 2019 instead of three times. Ward McCarthy is chief financial economist at Jefferies & Company.

WARD MCCARTHY: The Fed still expects to raise rate going forward, but they expect to do it at a slower pace, a less predictable pace.

ZARROLI: That normally might have been enough to calm down the financial markets, which have been especially volatile lately. Stock investors in particular dislike rate hikes, but Powell's words didn't seem to go far enough to appease investors. On the contrary, stocks plunged as soon as he began speaking and kept falling throughout the press conference. Stock prices are now well into negative territory for the year, and they keep falling. Ryan Sweet is head of monetary policy research at Moody's Analytics.

RYAN SWEET: My takeaway from that is that, you know, markets are really concerned that the Fed's just going to keep hiking rates until something breaks.

ZARROLI: High interest rates tend to slow down growth by making it more expensive to borrow. Sweet says he doesn't think the Fed is going to raise rates recklessly. It's just monitoring the data carefully and trying to understand what's happening. But investors aren't happy and neither for that matter is President Trump, who has railed against the Fed for raising rates. He has even singled out Powell for criticism. This week, Trump said in a tweet that Fed officials need to, quote, "feel the market, not just go by meaningless numbers." At today's press conference, Powell was asked whether Trump's attacks had influenced Fed policy. His reply was polite but firm.

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POWELL: Political considerations have played no role whatsoever in our discussions or decisions about monetary policy.

ZARROLI: Powell said we have the independence we need to do our jobs, and nothing will deter us from doing what we think is the right thing to do. Jim Zarroli, NPR News, New York.

参考译文:

今天,美联储宣布将利率上调25个基点。同时,美联储官员表示他们明年将放缓加息步伐。美联储此举符合市场预期,但是投资者没有庆祝,股市反而出现暴跌。NPR新闻的吉姆·扎罗里将解释原因。

吉姆·扎罗里连线:没有人对美联储今天宣布加息感到惊讶。美联储已经表示他们会在3年内加息9次。美联储主席杰罗米·鲍威尔在会后对记者表示,美国经济仍将稳健增长。

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杰罗米·鲍威尔:2018年是金融危机以来经济表现最强劲的一年。这段时间失业率处于低位且经济增长强劲,通货膨胀率仍然维持在2%以下。

扎罗里:这些是保持经济增长的理想条件,鲍威尔说美联储对经济预期仍持乐观态度。但是美联储预计明年的经济增速仅有2.3%,而不是此前预测的2.5%。鲍威尔表示,美联储正在密切留意一些新出现且可能在全球经济中发挥作用的令人担忧的因素。

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鲍威尔:广义上来讲,商人和市场相关人员对全球经济增长感到担心。部分原因在于贸易紧张局势。另一部分原因是各种因素带来的影响。

扎罗里:鲍威尔表示,目前美国与中国之间的关税争端对经济增长的影响相对较小,但这一争端可能会损害商业信心,这是一个潜在问题。他说美联储明年会将这一因素纳入考虑。大多数美联储官员认为,2019年美联储不会加息3次,其加息次数不应超过2次。沃德·麦卡锡是杰富瑞投资银行的首席金融经济学家。

沃德·麦卡锡:美联储仍希望未来继续加息,但是他们会以更缓慢且难以预测的速度来加息。

扎罗里:这通常足以令金融市场稳定下来,近期的金融市场尤为脆弱。股票投资者尤其不喜欢加息,而鲍威尔的话似乎不足以安抚投资者。相反,他在记者会上一开始讲话,股票就出现了暴跌,且在整个记者会过程中一直在下跌。目前股价已进入负增长,而且还在持续下跌。瑞安·斯威特是穆迪分析公司货币政策研究方向的负责人。

瑞安·斯威特:我对此的理解是,市场对美联储在出现问题前持续加息的做法感到不安。

扎罗里:加息往往会导致贷款成本上升,继而减缓经济增长。斯威特表示,他不认为美联储会继续不计后果地加息。美联储会密切注意数据,并尽力了解局势发展。但是投资者并不满意,同样,特朗普总统也不满意,他曾呵斥美联储的加息决定。他甚至点名批评了鲍威尔。特朗普本周曾在推特上表示,美联储官员需要“感受市场,不要只看着无意义的数据”。鲍威尔在今天的记者会上被问及特朗普的攻击是否影响了美联储的政策。他的回答礼貌而坚定。

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鲍威尔:政治考虑没有对我们就货币政策进行的讨论或做出的决定产生任何影响。

扎罗里:鲍威尔表示,我们拥有开展工作所需要的独立性,没有什么能阻止我们去做我们认为正确的事情。NPR新闻,吉姆·扎罗里纽约报道。

重点讲解:

1. take into account 考虑到;把…计算在内;

You have to take capital appreciation of the property into account.

你必须将该处房产的资本增值考虑在内。

2. rail against (大声)责骂,呵斥;

She railed against the injustice of it all.

她大骂此事太不公正。

3. single out 单独挑出;特别选出;

She was singled out for criticism.

把她单挑出来进行批评。

4. deter sb. from sth./doing sth. 威慑住;吓住;阻止;制止;

Supporters of the death penalty argue that it would deter criminals from carrying guns.

死刑的支持者认为它能阻吓罪犯携带枪支。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: https://www.veryv.net/18/12/NPR21083418xj.html