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发表时间:2018-11-07内容来源:VOA英语学习网

The Trump administration will reimpose sanctions on sales of Iranian oil on Monday. The move means countries and companies that deal with Iranian energy, shipping and banking sectors could be cut off from business with the U.S. The administration hopes that will pressure Iran to negotiate a better nuclear deal and dramatically change its behavior. NPR's Michele Kelemen reports.

MICHELE KELEMEN, BYLINE: Administration officials say they will give eight governments a temporary reprieve from U.S. sanctions as long as they wean themselves off Iranian oil. But in a conference call, they made clear they plan to be tough. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo says the goal is to get Iran to behave like a normal country and a democracy.

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MIKE POMPEO: And we are working towards allowing the Iranian people to have the opportunity to have a government they want, a government that doesn't take wealth from their country and spend it on malign activity around the world.

KELEMEN: By that he means Iran's missile programs and support for proxy militias. But the State Department has also been highlighting human rights abuses and corruption inside Iran in what appears to be a bid to get Iranians to rise up against their government. Amy Hawthorne, who's with a research and advocacy group called the Project on Middle East Democracy, sees contradictions in the U.S. approach. She reads one recent tweet from U.S. officials about things that could land you in an Iranian prison.

AMY HAWTHORNE: Defending prisoners, attending a protest, posting your thoughts on social media, questioning the regime's foreign policy.

KELEMEN: All true, she says. But this tweet was sent by the U.S. Embassy in the United Arab Emirates, highlighting America's selective approach to human rights.

HAWTHORNE: These are all things that people in the Emirates have been imprisoned for, both Emirati citizens and foreigners.

KELEMEN: Hawthorne says the U.S. has never been consistent on democracy promotion.

HAWTHORNE: In the case of the Trump administration, the gap between the kind of relentless critical messaging on Iran's human rights abuses and the general silence, lack of criticism of those same problems inside authoritarian Arab ally countries is really, really notable.

KELEMEN: And Hawthorne believes that weakens the U.S. argument. The murder of a Washington Post columnist in the Saudi consulate and a devastating Saudi-led air campaign in Yemen also undermine the U.S. effort to stay focused on Iran's abuses, though that doesn't seem to deter Brian Hook, who runs the State Department's Iran Action Group.

BRIAN HOOK: Saudi Arabia has been very helpful to ensure an adequately supplied oil market during this period where we have seen dramatic reductions in the import of Iranian crude as part of our maximum economic pressure campaign.

KELEMEN: Hook says the U.S. backs the Iranian people who seek a government that doesn't steal them blind. Hadi Ghaemi, director of the U.S.-based Center for Human Rights in Iran, warns that U.S. sanctions could hurt average Iranians. And he points out that the Trump administration still bans Iranians, including victims of the regime, from getting U.S. visas.

HADI GHAEMI: Unfortunately, when we look at the broader policies such as the travel ban and the incoming sanctions, particularly with regard to humanitarian such as essential food items and medicine, this administration is really not giving the message to the broader Iranian people that it has their interests in mind.

KELEMEN: Administration officials say humanitarian goods are exempt from U.S. sanctions. But with the banking restrictions going back into force Monday, it may be difficult for even legitimate business with Iran. Michele Kelemen, NPR News, the State Department.

参考译文:

特朗普政府将于周一重启对伊朗石油销售的制裁。此举意味着,与伊朗能源、航运和银行部门有往来的国家和企业可能无法与美国进行商业往来。美国政府希望这一制裁能对伊朗施压,促使其协商一份更完善的核协议,并使伊朗的行为发生颠覆性的改变。NPR新闻的米歇尔·克莱门将带来详细报道。

米歇尔·克莱门连线:美国政府官员表示,他们将给予8个国家暂时豁免权,这些国家暂时不会被美国制裁,只要他们停止从伊朗进口石油。但是官员在电话会议中明确表示,他们计划采取强硬手段。美国国务卿迈克·蓬佩奥表示,他们的目标是让伊朗表现得像正常国家和民主国家。

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迈克·蓬佩奥:我们正在努力使伊朗民众有机会拥有他们想要的政府,这个政府不会掠夺国家财富,也不会用掠夺来的财富去世界各地作恶。

克莱门:他指的是伊朗的导弹项目以及对代理民兵组织的支持。同时,美国国务院也一直在强调伊朗侵犯人权的行为和腐败问题,看起来美国试图让伊朗人反抗政府。研究倡议组织“中东民主项目”的艾米·霍索恩认为,美国的做法存在矛盾。她看了美国官员最近发表的一篇推文,文章列出了那些可能会使你被关进伊朗监狱的行为。

艾米·霍索恩:为囚犯辩护、参加抗议活动、在社交媒体上发表观点、质疑政府的外交政策。

克莱门:她说,这些都是事实。但是这篇推文是美国驻阿联酋大使馆发布的,这表明美国在人权问题上采用了“选择性方法”。

霍索恩:这些也是会将阿联酋境内的民众送进监狱的行为,无论是阿联酋公民还是外国人。

克莱门:霍索恩表示,美国在促进民主方面从未保持过一致。

霍索恩:特朗普政府一直持续不断地对伊朗侵犯人权的行为进行指责,但是却对阿拉伯盟友政权中同样的问题保持沉默或者说不去指责,两者之间的差距非常值得注意。

克莱门:霍索恩认为,这削弱了美国的观点。另外,一名《华盛顿邮报》专栏作家在沙特领事馆被谋杀,以及沙特在也门领导的破坏性空袭行动,也削弱了美国集中于伊朗侵犯人权行为的努力,不过这看似并没有威慑住布莱恩·胡克,他是美国国务院伊朗行动小组的负责人。

布莱恩·胡克:在我们推行最大化经济压力行动期间,从伊朗进口的原油量大幅减少,而阿拉伯为确保石油市场的充足供应提供了很大帮助。

克莱门:胡克表示,美国支持伊朗民众追求不会在背后窃取国家财富的政府。总部位于美国的伊朗人权中心主任哈迪·甘米警告称,美国的制裁措施可能会损害普通伊朗民众。他指出,特朗普政府仍禁止伊朗人获得美国签证,这些人中包括被伊朗政权迫害的受害者。

哈迪·甘米:不幸的是,当我们审视旅游禁令和即将实施的制裁措施等更广泛的政策时,尤其是在基本食物和药物等人道主义事业上,这届政府并没有向更多伊朗人传递出“你们的利益在考虑之列”这一信息。

克莱门:美国政府官员表示,美国的制裁措施对人道主义物资予以豁免。但是由于银行业限制将于周一恢复生效,与伊朗之间的合法商业往来可能都难以进行。NPR新闻的,米歇尔·克莱门美国国务院报道。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: https://www.veryv.net/18/11/NPR07104751zf.html