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发表时间:2018-11-06内容来源:VOA英语学习网

With one week to go before the midterm elections, President Trump is floating a new tactic in his immigration crackdown. The president says he wants to end the automatic right to citizenship for babies born in the U.S. Birthright citizenship is protected by the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. In an interview with "Axios," Trump insisted he can change that.

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PRESIDENT Donald Trump: You can definitely do it with an act of Congress, but now they're saying I can do it just with an executive order.

SHAPIRO: The full interview airs this weekend on "Axios" on HBO. Joining us now is NPR's Joel Rose. Hi, Joel.

JOEL ROSE, BYLINE: Hey, Ari.

SHAPIRO: First, just fact check for us. Can the president do this?

ROSE: Most constitutional scholars would say he can't do it alone, and they would argue, actually, that Congress couldn't do it alone either. They say it would require a constitutional amendment because right now, here is what the 14th amendment says, quote, "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States."

SHAPIRO: That seems like pretty clear language. So where does President Trump's argument come from that he could do this without a constitutional amendment?

ROSE: The president is relying basically on a small but very vocal group of conservative legal scholars who say that the entire country, basically, has been reading the 14th Amendment wrong for over a century and that children who are born to noncitizens should not be granted automatic citizenship. They argue that was a mistake and that it's led immigrants to abuse the current system.

SHAPIRO: I know there has been a lot of reaction to this today both on Capitol Hill and among the legal community. Tell us what people are saying.

ROSE: Well, Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan was asked about the president's comments today and said flatly that you cannot end birthright citizenship with an executive order. Most legal scholars say the Supreme Court settled this more than a century ago.

Margaret Stock is an immigration lawyer in Alaska who taught constitutional law at West Point. Here is what she said.

MARGARET STOCK: I think it's kind of a lunatic fringe argument, but it's been going on for a long time. I mean, I've been debating folks like this for more than a decade, and now they've got a president in office who apparently has fixated on this as well.

ROSE: If President Trump does follow through on this proposal, there would certainly be legal challenges. And it's important to note, though, that the White House has floated other executive orders that never saw the light of day. So a lot of the White House's critics are saying that this is just politics.

SHAPIRO: And in terms of politics, the timing seems significant that we're one week from the midterm elections. Is this just President Trump trying to make immigration the central issue in these final days?

ROSE: Well, the president has definitely been talking a lot about immigration at his campaign rallies. Just yesterday, the Department of Defense announced that it's sending about 5,000 troops to the southwest border to support immigration authorities. That is in response to the migrant caravan of people fleeing from violence in Central America that is slowly making its way across Mexico.

No question that this president was elected on a promise to get tough on immigration and that this issue plays well with his base. He wants to turn that base out to vote next week or in the midterm elections. Although, you know, judging by the outrage from Democrats and others over his proposal to end birthright citizenship, I guess it's possible that this issue will motivate voters on the other side as well.

SHAPIRO: One more statement from the president on this that I'd like you to fact check. Trump says the U.S. is out of step with the rest of the world and that it is the only country to allow birthright citizenship. Is that true?

ROSE: No, that's not true. The U.S. is unusual, but it is not unique. There are over 30 countries that also have birthright citizenship. Mostly, they are in the Western Hemisphere, including Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, but we are not alone.

SHAPIRO: NPR's Joel Rose, thanks a lot.

ROSE: You're welcome.

参考译文:

在距离中期选举还有一周时间时,特朗普总统提出了一个打击移民的新策略。总统表示,他希望终止在美国出生的婴儿自动获得美国国籍的权力。出生公民权受美国宪法第十四修正案保护。特朗普在接受Axios网站采访时坚称,他能改变这项规定。

(录音档案)

唐纳德·特朗普总统:肯定可以让国会通过立法形式来实现,但现在他们说我也可以签署行政令来实现。

夏皮罗:Axios采访总统的完整龙8娱乐官方网站于本周日在HBO电视台播出。现在我们将连线NPR新闻的乔尔·罗斯。你好,乔尔。

乔尔·罗斯连线:你好,阿里。

夏皮罗:首先,请帮我们进行一下事实核查。总统能这样做吗?

罗斯:大多数宪法学者认为,他一个人办不到,实际上他们还认为,仅凭国会也无法独力做到。他们说,这需要通过宪法修正案,因为宪法第十四修正案规定,“所有在美国出生或在美国归化,并受美国司法管辖的人,都是美国公民”。

夏皮罗:这看似是相当清晰的表述。那特朗普总统称他能在不通过宪法修正案的情况下做到这件事的说法从何而来?

罗斯:基本上来说,总统依赖于少数直言不讳的保守派法律学者,这些人表示,整个美国在一个多世纪以来一直误读了宪法第十四修正案,在美国出生的非美国公民的子女不应自动获得美国国籍。他们认为这是个错误,而且导致移民滥用了现行制度。

夏皮罗:我知道这在今天引发了国会山和法律界的诸多反应。请介绍一下人们的想法。

罗斯:今天,共和党籍众议院议长保罗·瑞安被问到对总统言论的看法,他斩钉截铁地表示,不能通过签署行政令的方式来终止出生公民权。大多数法律学者表示,最高法院在一个多世纪前就解决了这个问题。

玛格丽特·斯托克是阿拉斯加州的一名移民律师,她曾在西点军校教授宪法学。下面是她所说。

玛格丽特·斯托克:我认为这是极端分子的观点,但是这种观点由来已久。10多年来,我一直在与持这种观点的人争论,而现在显然有位总统也迷恋上了这种观点。

罗斯:如果特朗普总统推进这项提议,那肯定会遇到法律挑战。不过,需要注意的是,白宫提及过的行政令也有从未成形过的。因此,许多白宫批评者指出,这只是政治手段。

夏皮罗:从政治角度来说,这一时间点似乎非常重要,现在距离中期选举还有一周。特朗普总统只是试图在最后几天使移民成为核心问题吗?

罗斯:显然,总统在竞选集会中一直在谈论移民问题。就在昨天,美国国防部宣布将派出约5000名军人前往美国西南边境,支援移民部门。这是对大篷车移民做出的回应,这些逃离中美洲暴力局势的移民正在缓慢地穿越墨西哥。

毫无疑问,特朗普当选总统时承诺对待移民问题采取强硬立场,而这深得他的支持者的欢心。他希望他的支持者在下周的中期选举中投票。但是,民主党人和其他人对他终止出生公民权这一提议感到愤怒,从这一点来看,我想这个问题可能也会激励另一方的选民。

夏皮罗:我希望你能对总统的另一个说法进行事实核查。特朗普表示,美国与世界其他国家格格不入,因为美国是唯一允许出生公民权的国家。这是事实吗?

罗斯:不是,事实并非如此。美国是比较特别,但并不是独一无二的。目前世界上还有30多个国家实行出生公民权。其中大多数国家位于西半球,比如加拿大、墨西哥、巴西、阿根廷等国,而美国并不是唯一实行这一制度的国家。

夏皮罗:以上是NPR新闻的乔尔·罗斯带来的报道,非常谢谢你。

罗斯:不客气。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: https://www.veryv.net/18/11/NPR06100229vp.html