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发表时间:2018-09-11内容来源:VOA英语学习网

Nationalist, anti-immigrant political parties have been making inroads in elections across Europe. It has happened again. This time, in Sweden. The ruling center-left Socialist Democrats seem to have just barely beat out a party with a very similar name and a very different message, the Sweden Democrats, who have neo-Nazi roots. BBC reporter Maddy Savage is based in Stockholm and joins us now. Maddy, just first off, how close exactly was this election?

MADDY SAVAGE: Well, polls suggested this was going to be one of the tightest elections in history here in Sweden. And the takeaway from the knife-edge vote is that, yes, very close, and a very divided country. The nationalist, anti-immigration Sweden Democrats, the party everyone was talking about, they did make historic gains.

They scored about 18 percent of the vote, up from 13 percent in the last election, as many voters took a stand against recent record immigration to the country, a strain on social services that some have linked to that, and rising numbers of shootings in areas with high immigrant populations. But it's worth noting the party didn't do as well as it hoped or get enough votes to make it the second-largest party. Meanwhile, though, the mainstream center-left and center-right blocs both experienced losses, and they've ended up in a deadlock with neither able to form a majority government.

MARTIN: And we'll talk about the implications of that. But first can you explain more about what's led to the rise of this particular party? You mentioned immigration, which is at play across Europe. Is that really what has been driving all of the voters towards this particular party?

SAVAGE: Yeah. The Sweden Democrats are a nationalist party. And although they have sought to develop other issues as part of their campaign, immigration is their key message. Sweden took in more refugees per capita than any other country at the height of the refugee crisis, 163,000 in just one year, in 2015. All of the parties became tougher on immigration after that, including the center-left government because they said it was putting a strain on services.

But it's really been the Sweden Democrats that have been able to own the issue of immigration and really push that agenda through. They've targeted a lot of lower-income voters, especially in rural areas, people that feel disenfranchised and separated from the political establishment. They've got a very charismatic leader. But the mainstream parties, as I say, also starting to have a tougher line on immigration but not really being able to own that issue and not really being able to push forward other issues in their agenda such as health care, climate, the economy. A lot of those issues played a much smaller role in this campaign than they would usually.

MARTIN: So what happens now? I mean, what's the practical implication of all this as they try to form a government here?

SAVAGE: It's complicated, and political observers here expect the next days and weeks to be packed with negotiations to see if there's the possibility for a compromise coalition. This would probably include a coalition across the political mainstream. So some form of collaboration between the center-left and the center-right. Because crucially, all the traditional parties are still saying they won't work with the nationalist Sweden Democrats. They still see them as too far away from their ideology. We'll have to see whether they stick to what they've been saying on that.

MARTIN: All right. Maddy Savage of the BBC speaking to us from Stockholm about the recent elections in Sweden. She joined us via Skype. Thanks so much. We appreciate it.

SAVAGE: Thanks.

参考译文:

民族主义政党和反移民政党不断在欧洲各国的选举中得势。这种情况再次发生。这次是瑞典选举。瑞典执政党是中左翼社会民主党,该政党似乎刚刚在选举中险胜一个与其名字类似但观点大相径庭的政党——有新纳粹主义根基的瑞典民主党。玛蒂·萨维奇是BBC新闻驻斯德哥尔摩记者,她将和我们连线。玛蒂,第一个问题是,这场选举的结果有多接近?

玛蒂·萨维奇:选前民调显示,这将是瑞典历史上选情最为焦灼的选举之一。而胜负难料的投票所传递出的信息是,没错,得票率非常接近,而且瑞典是一个分歧极为严重的国家。所有人都在谈论的是持民族主义和反移民态度的瑞典民主党,该政党的确取得了历史性突破。

他们的得票率约为18%,比上次选举13%的得票率有所增加,这是因为许多选民对瑞典最近接收移民数量创纪录持反对态度,大量移民涌入对瑞典的社会服务造成压力,而且移民人口密集地区的枪击案数量也在不断增加。但是值得注意的是,瑞典民主党的表现没有其希望的那样好,该政党的票数不足以使其成为第二大政党。同时,两大主流派别,即中左翼和中右翼阵营的得票率都有损失,他们陷入僵局之中,两个政党均无法组建多数党政府。

马丁:我们稍后再来谈这一结果的影响。首先,请你详细解释一下这个政党崛起的原因。你刚提到了移民问题,这个问题对欧洲各国都有影响。这是促使选民转而支持这个政党的原因所在吗?

萨维奇:对。瑞典民主党是一个民族主义政党。虽然他们在竞选期间也曾寻求发展其他议题,但是移民问题是他们观点的核心。在难民危机最严重的时候,瑞典接收的人均难民数量比其他国家都要多,仅在2015年一年就接收了16.3万名难民。在那之后,瑞典所有政党都开始在移民问题上采取更强硬的态度,包括中左翼政府在内,因为他们认为难民涌入对瑞典的服务造成了压力。

但是瑞典民主党确实能把控这个问题并真正推动该议程。他们的目标是众多低收入选民,尤其是乡村地区的低收入选民,这些选民感觉自已被剥夺了权利,认为自已与政治体制相隔离。该政党的领导人非常有魅力。但是如我所说,两大主流政党也开始在移民问题上采取更强硬的态度,但是他们没能控制移民问题,也没能推动议程中的其他问题,比如医保、气候、经济等问题。相比于通常情况,这些问题中的许多议题在这次竞选活动中所发挥的作用小了很多。

马丁:接下来会怎样?他们正在试图组建政府,那这一结果有什么实际意义?

萨维奇:情况很复杂,瑞典的政治观察员预计,接下来的几天甚至是几周将进行各种协商,看看是否有可能达成妥协,组建政府。这可能包括两大主流阵营联合组阁。即中左和中右两大阵营合作。因为关键在于,所有传统政党现在依然表示他们不会与民族主义政党瑞典民主党合作。他们依然认为该政党的意识形态与他们相距甚远。至于他们是否会坚持他们一直以来的这种说法,我们要拭目以待。

马丁:好。以上是BBC新闻的玛蒂·萨维奇从斯德哥尔摩带来的报道,她为我们介绍了瑞典最近举行的选举。她是通过Skype和我们进行的连线。非常谢谢你。我们很感谢你的报道。

萨维奇:谢谢。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: https://www.veryv.net/18/09/npr20180911_5318932v2L.html