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发表时间:2018-09-07内容来源:VOA英语学习网

This week, Army General Scott Miller became the ninth U.S. general in 17 years of war to assume command of NATO forces in Afghanistan. One of his challenges will be the group known as the Haqqani network, which the U.S. once praised as freedom fighters and now calls a terrorist group. Yesterday, the Taliban announced that the founder of the Haqqani network has died. NPR's Pentagon correspondent Tom Bowman is with us now to talk about this. Hi, Tom.

TOM BOWMAN, BYLINE: Hello, Ari.

SHAPIRO: The founder of the group is not the current leader, but tell us about who he was and what his significance is.

BOWMAN: His name is Jalaluddin Haqqani, and think of him, Ari, as Don Corleone.

SHAPIRO: [Laughter].

BOWMAN: He was head of this family. He had seven sons, and he was into trucking. He was into extortion, kidnapping, making some money. He grew up in eastern Afghanistan, and he was a mentor to Osama bin Laden and helped bin Laden set up training camps in Afghanistan. And also he got tens of thousands of dollars from the American government to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan.

SHAPIRO: Back in the '80s.

BOWMAN: That's right. And they tried to bring him into the fold after the Taliban fell — he worked with the Taliban in Afghanistan — and he refused. He basically said, now I'm going to fight you. You're the infidels I'll be fighting now, meaning the United States.

SHAPIRO: And one of his sons now runs the group, right?

BOWMAN: Siraj Haqqani runs the group now, the Haqqani network, and people think he's more of a jihadist than his dad was. Again, his dad was, you know, in many respects, sort of a businessman. And they think his son is more hardened. And he's a deputy commander of the Taliban — runs all their military operations.

SHAPIRO: One reason this group has been as successful as it has is that it's been able to find safe havens in Pakistan. How does that factor into U.S. considerations?

BOWMAN: Well, it's a huge problem for the U.S. I remember flying over the border with a Army colonel a number of years ago, and he said, Tom, that's the problem right down there. He was pointing to Pakistan. He said, that's where the Haqqanis are, and I can't get at them. I can't go and get them because it's in another country. So it's a huge problem because the U.S. is trying to work with Pakistan to go after the Haqqani network. But it's interesting. In some of the attacks, they found out that some of the cellphones they picked up, they had calls back to the Pakistani intelligence — some of the Haqqani cellphones.

SHAPIRO: I know there were rumors a few years ago that the founder of this group had died. Now, of course, it's confirmed. Does that really have any impact on how the Haqqani network functions?

BOWMAN: It doesn't have any impact at all, I don't think. The Haqqani network is involved in some of the huge attacks in Kabul. They were involved in a January attack with an ambulance filled with explosives that killed a hundred people. They're one of the toughest groups working with the Taliban. And I don't see any change in the weeks and months ahead.

SHAPIRO: So as the NATO effort in Afghanistan gets new U.S. leadership, how is that effort changing?

BOWMAN: Well, we don't know quite yet how things will change. What we do know is the American government has withheld $300 million from Pakistan to go after the Haqqani network and other militant groups. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Joe Dunford and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo are going to be in Pakistan talking to Pakistani leaders about the efforts to go after some of these groups. But, frankly, I don't think it's going to matter that much. The U.S. has withheld money in the past. They've complained about Pakistan not going after the Haqqani network and other militants. I just think this is going to fall on deaf ears once again.

SHAPIRO: That's NPR's Pentagon correspondent, Tom Bowman. Thanks, Tom.

BOWMAN: You're welcome, Ari.

参考译文:

本周,陆军将领斯科特·米勒成为17年战事中指挥北约驻阿富汗军队的第九任美国将军。他面临的其中一个挑战是“哈卡尼网络”组织,美国曾称赞该组织为自由斗士,但现在却称其为恐怖组织。昨天,塔昨班宣布“哈卡尼网络”组织创建者死亡。NPR新闻驻五角大楼记者汤姆·鲍曼将和我们连线并带来详细报道。你好,汤姆。

汤姆·鲍曼连线:你好,阿里。

夏皮罗:该组织的创建者并不是其现在的领袖,不过请介绍一下这位创建者以及他的重要性。

鲍曼:他的名字是贾拉勒丁·哈卡尼,阿里,请把他当作唐·柯里昂。

夏皮罗:(笑)。

鲍曼:他是家族领袖。他有7个儿子,他对卡车运输感兴趣。他还热衷于勒索、绑架和赚钱。他在阿富汗东部长大,他曾是奥萨马·本·拉登的导师,并帮助本·拉登在阿富汗建立了训练营。另外,他还曾从美国政府手中获得数万美元资金,对抗入侵阿富汗的苏联军队。

夏皮罗:那是上世纪80年代。

鲍曼:没错。他与阿富汗塔利班合作过,在塔利班政权倒台后,他们曾试图将他纳入麾下,但是被他拒绝。他说,现在我要和你们较量了。你们是我现在要对抗的异教徒,他指的是美国。

夏皮罗:“哈卡尼网络”的指挥权现在他儿子手中,对吧?

鲍曼:现在领导“哈卡尼网络”的是希拉·哈卡尼,人们认为,与他父亲相比,他更像是圣战分子。我们要再次说明一下,从许多方面来说,他的父亲更像是商人。他们认为希拉·哈卡尼更冷酷。他现在是塔利班的副指挥官,统领塔利班的所有军事行动。

夏皮罗:这个组织获得成功的其中一个原因是,其能在巴基斯坦找到安全的藏身之所。美国如何考虑这一因素?

鲍曼:这对美国来说是个巨大的问题。我记得几年前我和一名陆军上校一起乘飞机飞越边境,当时他说,汤姆,那就是问题所在。他当时指向了巴基斯坦。他说,那就是哈卡尼家族藏身的地方,而我不能去抓他们。我不能去把他们抓回来,因为那是另一个国家。因此,这是一个巨大的问题,所以美国在试图与巴基斯坦合作,共同打击“哈卡尼网络”。但是有些地方值得注意。在一些攻击中,他们发现了该组织使用的手机,这些手机曾与巴基斯坦情报部门联系过。

夏皮罗:我知道几年前有传言说该组织的创建者已经死亡。当然,现在这个消息得到了证实。这对“哈卡尼网络”的运作有影响吗?

鲍曼:我认为有一定的影响。“哈卡尼网络”参与过喀布尔发生的一些大型袭击。他们还参与了今年1月用一辆满载炸弹的救护车发动的袭击,这起袭击造成100人死亡。“哈卡尼网络”是与塔利班合作的组织中最难对付的组织之一。我认为未来几周或几个月不会有任何变化。

夏皮罗:北约驻阿富汗军队更换了美国领导层,这一努力会带来何种改变?

鲍曼:目前我们还不能确定事情会怎样变化。我们了解到的情况是,美国政府取消了对巴基斯坦的3亿美元援助,这笔资金用于打击“哈卡尼网络”和其他武装组织。美国参谋长联席会议主席约瑟夫·邓福德将军和美国国务卿迈克·蓬佩奥将前往巴基斯坦,与巴基斯坦领导人协商打击这些组织的行动。但是,说实话,我认为那并没有那么重要。美国以前也取消过援助。他们指责巴基斯坦没有打击“哈卡尼网络”和其他武装组织。我认为这会再次被置若罔闻。

夏皮罗:以上是NPR新闻驻五角大楼记者汤姆·鲍曼带来的报道。汤姆,谢谢你。

鲍曼:不客气,阿里。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: https://www.veryv.net/18/09/npr20180906_1122677BYq.html